1 formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure; "He retracted his earlier statements about his religion"; "She abjured her beliefs" [syn: abjure, recant, forswear, resile]
2 pull away from a source of disgust or fear [syn: shrink back]
3 use a surgical instrument to hold open (the edges of a wound or an organ) [syn: pull back, draw back]
4 pull inward or towards a center; "The pilot drew in the landing gear"; "The cat retracted his claws" [syn: draw in]
Pronunciation(US) IPA: /rəˈtrækt/
- Rhymes: -ækt
In topology, a retraction, as the name suggests, "retracts" an entire space into a subspace. A deformation retraction is a map which captures the idea of continuously shrinking a space into a subspace.
Let X be a topological space and A a subspace of X. Then a continuous map
- r:X \to A
is a retraction if the restriction of r to A is the identity map on A; that is, r(a) = a for all a in A. Equivalently, denoting by
- \iota : A \hookrightarrow X
the inclusion, a retraction is a continuous map r such that
- r \circ \iota = id_A,
that is, the composition of r with the inclusion is the identity of A. Note that, by definition, a retraction maps X onto A. A subspace A is called a retract of X if such a retraction exists. For instance, any space retracts to a point in the obvious way.
A space X is known as an absolute retract (or AR) if for every normal space Y that embeds X as a closed subset, X is a retract of Y.
If there exists an open set U such that
- A \subset U \subset X
and A is a retract of U, then A is called a neighborhood retract of X.
A space X is an absolute neighborhood retract (or ANR) if for every normal space Y that embeds X as a closed subset, X is a neighborhood retract of Y.
Deformation retract and Strong deformation retract
A continuous map
- d:X \times [0, 1] \to X
is a deformation retraction if, for every x in X and a in A,
- d(x,0) = x, \; d(x,1) \in A ,\quad \mbox \quad d(a,1) = a.
In other words, a deformation retraction is a homotopy between a retract and the identity map on X. The subspace A is called a deformation retract of X. A deformation retract is a special case of homotopy equivalence.
A retract need not be a deformation retract. For instance, having a single point as a deformation retract would imply a space is path connected.
Note: An equivalent definition of deformation retraction is the following. A continuous map r: X → A is a deformation retraction if it is a retraction and its composition with the inclusion is homotopic to the identity map on X. In this formulation, a deformation retraction carries with it a homotopy between the identity map on X and itself.
If, in the definition of a deformation retraction, we add the requirement that
- d(a,t) = a\,
for all t in [0, 1], d is called a strong deformation retraction. In other words, a strong deformation retraction leaves points in A fixed throughout the homotopy. (Some authors take this as the definition of deformation retraction.)
Neighborhood deformation retract
A pair (X, A) of spaces in U is an NDR-pair if there exists a map u:X \rightarrow I such that A = u^ (0) and a homotopy h:I \times X \rightarrow X such that h(0, x) = x for all x \in X, h(t, a) = a for all (t, a) \in I \times A, and h(1, x) \in A for all x \in u^ [ 0 , 1). The pair (h, u) is said to be a representation of (X, A) as an NDR-pair.
Deformation retraction is a particular case of homotopy equivalence. In fact, two spaces are homotopy equivalent if and only if they are both deformation retracts of a single larger space.
Any topological space which deformation retracts to a point is contractible and vice versa. However, there exist contractible spaces which do not strongly deformation retract to a point.
retract in German: Retraktion
retract in Finnish: Deformaatioretrakti
retract in Italian: Retrazione
retract in Polish: Retrakt deformacyjny
retract in Russian: Деформационный ретракт
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